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WHAT IS A COMMODITY?
A commodity is a product having commercial value that can be produced, bought, sold, and consumed.
WHAT IS A DERIVATIVE CONTRACT AND WHAT IS COMMODITY FUTURE?
A derivative contract is an enforceable agreement whose value is derived from the value of an underlying asset; the underlying asset can be a commodity, precious metal, currency, bond, stock, or, indices of commodities, stocks etc. Four most common examples of derivative instruments are forwards, futures, options and swaps/spreads. Commodity future is a contract to buy or sell specific commodity, of a specific quality, at a specific price, for a specific future date on the exchange.
WHAT IS FORWARD CONTRACT?
A forward contract is a legally enforceable agreement for delivery of goods or the underlying asset on a specific date in future at a price agreed on the date of contract. Under Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1952, all the contracts for delivery of goods, which are settled by payment of money difference or where delivery and payment is made after a period of 11 days, are forward contracts
WHAT IS A FUTURE CONTRACT?
Futures Contract is a type of forward contract. Futures are exchange traded contracts to sell or buy standardized financial instruments or physical commodities for delivery on a specified future date at an agreed price. Futures contracts are used generally for protecting against rich of adverse price fluctuation i.e. hedging.
HOW ARE FUTURE PRICES DETERMINED?
Futures prices evolve from the interaction of bids and offers emanating from all over the country which converge in the trading floor or the trading engine. The bid and offer prices are based on the expectations of prices on the maturity date.
WHAT IS LONG POSITION?
In simple terms, long position is a net bought position
WHAT IS SHORT POSITION?
In simple terms, short position is net sold position.
WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SPOT MARKET AND FUTURES MARKET?
In a spot market, commodities are physically bought or sold usually on a negotiable basis resulting in delivery. While in the futures markets, commodities can be bought or sold irrespective of the physical possession of the underlying commodity. The futures market trades in standardized contractual agreements of the underlying asset with specific quality, quantity, and mode of delivery whose settlement is guaranteed by regulated commodity exchanges.
WHAT IS A COMMODITY EXCHANGE?
As in capital markets, a commodity exchange is an association or a company or any other body corporate that is organizing futures trading in commodities and is registered with FMC (Forward Market Commission). Two major national level commodities exchanges are Multi Commodities Exchange of India (MCX), National Commodities and Derivatives Exchange of India (NCDEX).
WHO REGULATES THE COMMODITY EXCHANGES IN INDIA?
Commodity Market in India is regulated by Forward Market Commission (FMC) under the guidance of the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food, & Public Distribution.
WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF FUTURES TRADING IN COMMODITIES?
The biggest advantage of trading in commodity futures is price risk management and price discovery. Farmers can protect themselves against undesirable price movements and decide upon cropping pattern. The merchandisers avoid price risk. Processors keep control on raw material cost and decreasing inventory values. International traders also can lock in their prices.
WHAT IS HEDGING?
Hedging means taking a position in the futures or options market that is opposite to a position in the physical market. It reduces or limits risks associated with unpredictable changes in price. The objective behind this mechanism is to offset a loss in one market with a gain in another.
WHAT IS ARBITRAG IN COMMODITY MARKET?
Arbitrage is making purchases and sales simultaneously in two different markets to profit from the price differences prevailing in those markets. The factors driving arbitrage are the real or perceived differences in the equilibrium price as determined by supply and demand at various locations
WHAT ARE WAREHOUSE RECEIPTS?
It is a document issued by a warehouse indicating ownership of a stored commodity and specifying details in respect of some particulars, like, quality, quantity and, some times, indicating the crop season. The original depositor or the holder in due course can claim the commodities from the warehouse by producing the warehouse receipt.
WHAT IS A LOT SIZE? DO THE TRADING AND DELIVERY LOT SIZES DIFFER FROM EACH OTHER?
It is the quantity of a commodity specified in the contract as tradable units. The lot size is different for each commodity. The details about lot sizes / delivery lot can be obtained from the respective exchanges’ website. Each contract has a lot size and a delivery size, which are not the same; in the case of gold, the lot size on the NCDEX is 100 gm while the delivery size is 1000 gm. If a person wants to enter into a delivery settlement for gold, he will have to enter into a minimum of 10 contracts or multiples thereof. Market participants are required to negotiate only the quantity and price of the contract, as all other parameters are predetermined by the exchange. Please note the trading/delivery lot varies from exchange to exchange.
WHAT ARE THE VARIOUS ELEMNTS IN COST-OF-CARRY FOR A COMMODITY?
The cost-of-carry of a commodity is the sum of all the costs including interest, insurance, storage costs, and other miscellaneous costs. Usually, the commodity futures price in the exchange is the spot price plus cost-of-carry.
WHAT IS THE MEANING OF BASIS?
Basis is the difference between the spot price of an asset and the futures price of the same asset underlying. The spot price is the ready price prevailing in the physical commodity market while the futures price is the price of any specific contract that is prevailing in the exchanges where it is traded.
WHAT IS “CONTANGO” IN COMMODITY TRADING?
Contango means a situation, where futures contract prices are higher than the spot price and the futures contracts maturing earlier. It arises normally when the contract matures during the same crop season. In a well-integrated market, Contango is equal to the cost of carry viz. Interest rate on investment, loss on account of loss of weight or deterioration in quantity etc.
WHAT IS INITIAL MARGIN?
It is the minimum percentage of the contract value required to be deposited by the members/clients to the exchange before initiating any new buy or sell position. This must be maintained throughout the time their position is open and is returnable at delivery, exercise, expiry or closing out.
WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY DELIVERY PERIOD MARGIN?
It is the extra margin imposed by the exchange on the contracts when it enters the concluding phase i.e. it starts with tender period and goes up to delivery/settlement of trade. This amount is applicable on both the outstanding buy and sell positions.
WHAT IS “MARK-TO-MARKET”?
Mark-to-market margins (MTM or M2M) are payable based on closing prices at the end of each trading day. These margins will be paid by the buyer if the price declines and by the seller if the price rises. This margin is worked out on difference between the closing/clearing rate and the rate of the contract (if it is entered into on that day) or the previous day's clearing rate. The Exchange collects these margins from buyers if the prices decline and pays to the sellers and vice versa.
WHAT IS DUE DATE RATE?
It is the rate at which the contract is settled on the expiry date. Usually it is the average of the spot prices of the last few trading days (as specified by the exchange) before the contract maturity.
WHAT IS SPREAD?
Spread is the difference between prices of two futures contracts of the same underlying commodity. Futures market can be a normal market or an inverted market. If the price of the far month futures contract is higher than the near month one, then it is referred to as “normal market”. On the other hand, if the price of a far month futures contract is lower than the near month one, then the situation can be referred to as “inverted market”.
WHAT IS BULL SPREAD IN COMMODITY FUTURES?
In most commodities and financial derivatives market, the term refers to buying contracts maturing in nearby month, and selling the deferred month contracts, to profit from the wide spread which is larger than the cost of carry.
WHAT IS BEAR SPREAD IN COMMODITY FUTURES?
In most of commodities and financial derivatives market, the term refers to selling the nearby contract month, and buying the distant contract, to profit from saving in the cost of carry.
WHAT IS ROLLING OVER OF HEDGE POSITIONS?
Rolling over of hedge position means the closing out of existing position in the futures contract and simultaneously taking a new position in a futures contract with a later date of expiry.
WHAT IS MEANT BY CALENDER SPREAD?
A calendar spread means taking opposite positions in futures contract of the same commodity with different expiry dates. It is also known as an intra-commodity spread.
WHAT IS HEDGE RATIO?
Hedge ratio is the ratio of number of futures contracts to be purchased or sold, to the quantity of cash asset that is required to be hedged. It is calculated as product of the coefficient of correlation between the change in cash prices and the change in futures prices, and the ratio between the standard deviation of the change in cash price and the standard deviation of the change of futures prices of the commodity.
WHAT IS NOVATION?
Some Clearing Houses interpose between buyers and sellers as a legal counter party i.e., the clearing house becomes buyer to every seller and vice versa. This obviates the need for ascertaining credit-worthiness of each counter party and the only credit risk that the participants face is the risk of clearing house committing a default. Clearing House puts in place a sound risk-management system to be able to discharge its role as a counter party to all participants
WHAT IS CASH SETTLEMENT?
It is a process of settling a futures contract by payment of money difference rather than by delivering the physical commodity or instrument representing such physical commodity (like, warehouse receipt). In India, most of the future trades are cash settled.
WHAT KINDS OF RISKS DO PARTICIPANTS FACE IN DERIVATES MARKETS?
A.Credit risk: Credit risk on account of default by counter party: This is very low or almost zeros because the Exchange takes on the responsibility for the performance of contracts B.Market risk: Market risk is the risk of loss on account of adverse movement of price. C.Liquidity risk: Liquidity risks is the risk that unwinding of transactions may be difficult, if the market is illiquid D.Legal risk: Legal risk is that legal objections might be raised; regulatory framework might disallow some activities. E.Operational risk: Operational risk is the risk arising out of some operational difficulties, like, failure of electricity, due to which it becomes difficult to operate in the market.
CAN I TAKE DELIVERY OF THE COMMODITY? IF YES, HOW I CAN TAKE THE SAME?
A settlement takes place either through squaring off your position or by cash settlement or physical delivery. Squaring off is taking a opposite position to the initial stance, which means in the case of an original buy contract an investor would have to take a sell contract. An investor who intends to give or take delivery would have to inform his broker of the same prior to the start of delivery period. In case of delivery, a warehouse receipt is provided. Delivery is at the option of the seller; a buyer can take delivery only in case of a willing seller. All unmatched/rejected/excess positions are cash settled; all open positions for which no delivery information is submitted are also cash settled. Under cash settlement, the difference between the contract price and settlement price is to be paid or received. In online commodity trading, client can not go for delivery & all positions are cash settled.
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